It is also necessary to avoid all irritating factors that can lead to worsening of the disease. Irritating factors are rather specific, therefore it is necessary to individually determine the irritants that aggravate the disease for each patient. Some of the most common irritants are wool clothing, cold weather, emotional stress, staying in an overheated room, use of unsuitable cosmetics, detergents, etc.
In most patients, allergens can play a significant role in the manifestation and exacerbation of the disease. If allergens that aggravate (exacerbate) the disease are known, it is necessary to avoid them.
The most commonly used drugs are topical corticosteroids. They have an anti-inflammatory effect and relieve itching. The corticosteroid treatment is carried out over several weeks under medical supervision. Despite the good effect on all symptoms of atopic dermatitis, they should not be used continuously over time, because prolonged usage can lead to adverse effects (skin thinning or atrophy and enlargement of blood vessels or telangiectasia).
Anti-allergy medication (antihistamines) are also used because they have a positive effect on reducing itching. The sedative (narcotic) effect of these drugs is also helpful, since they improve the patients sleep when taken at night.
More recently, the so-called topical immunomodulators (tacrolimus and pimecrolimus) are used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. These drugs are applied locally and, unlike corticosteroids, do not have an adverse effect on the skin (no occurrence of atrophy and telangiectasia). Because of possible systemic side effects, they are used only as recommended by a specialist, for treating moderate to severe forms of atopic dermatitis.